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Population and Economy

  1. Habitations
    1. Physical Structure
    2. Population Structure
    3. Market
    4. Legislature
  2. Estates
    1. Physical Structure
    2. Population Structure
  3. Production and Consumption

1. Habitations

A habitation in Mysticora means an urban settlement of at least the size of a small town (i.e. 500 inhabitants). Habitations are the centers of trade, manufacturing and learning. Only here can unusual individuals be found who have the potential to become the heroes of future legends. The description of a habitation can be divided into several areas. The physical structure, the population, the market, and the legislature. Also, all habitations will have a name which cannot be changed during the course of play.

1.1 Physical Structure

location
map coordinates and other specifics e.g. if on coast, on river
size
percentage of area, shape/map
fortifications
outer defenses, inner defenses
ruler's residence
building wherein the local ruler resides, see examples below. A habitation may possess additional centers of rule but they would also be subordinate to this one (e.g. residence of a vice-ruler, town officials)
percentage of population outside city walls
and therefore same percentage of non-special buildings, population inside inner defenses calculated implicitly through buildings
infrastructure value
non-special buildings value & final total

special buildings:

centers of rule: city/town hall keep (fortification) palace citadel/capitolium (fortif.)
religious centers: chapel/shrine church/temple basilica cathredal/high temple
learning centers: cloister/philosopher's school university/library
entertainment centers: theater gymnasium stadium coliseum
  • sewers
  • aqueduct
  • mausoleum/graveyard
  • amphitheater/theater
  • public baths/therms
  • marketplace
  • small/large harbor
  • bestiary/oracle/wizard's tower
  • gardens
  • warehouses/storehouses (note: all buildings have a storage capacity, but warehouses have especially large capacities, usually for player use)
  • special manufactuaries/workshops (needed only if either player-owned or for unusual goods, otherwise implicit through list of goods produced (see below, production types): mines, armories, etc.


All buildings have a setting determining whether they are in- or outside of the city walls or even inside the keep.

Note: the remaining physical structure (e.g. living & working quarters for the mass of the inhabitants) is calculated implicitly through the population structure (see below, production capacity).


1.2 Population Structure

The social structure of a habitation consists of at least one (urban) population group. Each population group has a specific people (=nation), race and religion (=faith) and keeps its count of individuals separately. If more than one population group lives in a habitation then this often means that there are separate quarters inside the habitation. Population distributions among age and social/professional classes are given per pop. group in % (when specific individuals are extracted or added the percentages are adapted accordingly).


age/gender classes are:
name: note:
children persons aged 0-14 years (varies depending on race), little or no effect on population growth or production
grown females mature females, effects pop. growth rate, no effect on military recruitment
grown males determines military recruitment pool
elderly people persons aged over 60 years (depending on race), no effect on population growth or production


social classes (also known as castes) are:
name: note:
nobles privileged, often landowning, persons, no effect on production, large effect on demand for luxury goods, determines recruitment pool for high quality troops
clerics priests and monks, (some effect on production in medieval rural populations), affects morale and loyalty
burghers wealthy and ambitious urban citizens with full rights, large effect on production and trade, lesser effect on demand for luxury goods
freemen in urban populations landless and poor workers, usually main body of populace, lesser effect on production (depends on level of employment), unemployment level determines crime rate
in rural populations: mostly peasants with own plots, some craftsmen, affects agricultural production
serfs usually only in rural populations, peasants bound to their lands and slaves, affects agricultural production

note: other cultures (nations) would have alternative names: e.g. antique: aristocrats, priests, citizens, proletarians, slaves; barbarian: chieftains, shamans, wealthy tribesmen, common tribesmen, slaves)

For each people there will be a standard distribution for the age groups and the social/professional categories (both for urban and rural populations). Individual pop. groups varying from the standard scheme tend to return to the standard distributions over time. Additionally, for each people, there will be a table assigning the various character classes (with a fixed percentage) to the social/professionial categories.

Here is a guide to what classes usually are assigned to which social/professional categories (note: non-heroic professions are for economic calculations only, and are not available as character classes, they are marked with an '*' in the following list):


urban population groups:
category name social class character classes
nobles nobles noble, warrior, captain (any class depending on people definition)
clerics clerics priest, shaman, evil priest, warrior monk, (note: any character class may be defined as spiritual leader of a certain religion, also note that the availability of theses classes may depend on the religion of the population group, in which case any percentage values of wrong character classes are considered 0% instead)
arcanists/scholars burghers scholar, bard, scholastic arcanists, spiritualistic or black magic arcanists (depending on dominant religion)
craftsmen burghers engineer (=blacksmith), craftsman* (other than blacksmith), magesmith, artist*
officials burghers magistrate, herald, captain
merchants burghers merchant, ship captain, shopkeeper*
common arcanists freemen bard, seer, sorceror, trickster
common fighters freemen warrior, hunter
criminals freemen spy, assassin, thief, bandit, beggars*, (any outlawed arcanist class)
laborers freemen worker*, servant*, engineer (=blacksmith), craftsman* (other than blacksmith) (note: these craftsmen are considered less skilled or industrious than those from the class of burghers
slaves serfs worker*, servant* (usually only present in habitations of antique cultures)

For comparison the non-urban population is shown here too:

rural population groups:
category: social class: character classes:
nobles nobles noble, warrior, (rarely another class)
clerics clerics priest, shaman, evil priest, warrior monk, (note: any character class may be defined as spiritual leader of a certain religion, also note that the availability of theses classes may depend on the religion of the population group, in which case any percentage values of wrong character classes are considered 0% instead)
freemen freemen peasant*, craftsman*, hunter
serfs serfs peasant*, servant*

In rural populations the availability of character classes may be neglected for simplification, because hero recruitment is not allowed. Therefore character class distribution is only needed for economic & military calculations.

These are the descriptors for an urban population group:

habitation
identifier, determines the habitation that the pop. group belongs to
no. of individuals
measure, counts the size of a pop. group
people
identifier, determines the nationality of the pop. group
race
identifier, determines the race of the pop. group
faith
identifier, determines the faith or religion of the pop. group
suppressed people?
flag, in habitations with more than one pop. group some groups may suppressed, so that they are excluded from any offices or important positions (i.e. they have no influence on city rule), this condition negatively affects the morale and loyalty of this group
age group distributions
4 percentages, note: usually only the value for 'grown males' is changed
social/professional category distributions
as absolute numbers, from which the total is then calculated
morale level
evaluative level, describes the current mood of the population, affects productivity factor
loyalty level
evaluative level, represents the longer-term attitude of the population, in the absence of other influences the morale level will move towards this value
tax level
percentage, represents income tax rate, this tax is automatically collected for the town treasury) Note: although the economic parameters (all descriptors following the wealth values) are recorded separately for each population group, they may be alternatively presented in total for a habitation for ease of play


1.3 Market

Each habitation with one or more population groups has a market (i.e. the total of all marketplaces, fairs, and shops), at which anyone may buy or sell tradegoods. Each market stores its own supply levels (these are the evaluative, relative supply values for the 5 categories: arms, food, manufactured goods, raw materials, luxury goods; the meaning of a supply value is as follows: a value near 0 (=0%) means that there is a total shortage of goods of that category, near 1 (=100%) means that the supply meets the demand for those goods, a value above 1 means that there is a surplus, as multiple of demand), which determine the price of goods. Additionally there may be a list of goods for which there is a special demand, i.e. higher prices will be paid. Also, there will be foreign trade routes which determine certain goods that are imported from other regions.

tradegood list
id item price in shillings weight in kg
2 food 0.5 1
3 timber 1.5 1000
4 iron 90 50
5 stone 0.1 50
6 horse 30 350
7 horse & wagon 60 600
8 cart 20 100
9 coach 300 400
12 alum 500 50
13 coal 20 50
14 copper 100 50
16 gems 20000 1
17 gold 7000 1
18 marble 500 1000
20 salt 60 50
21 semiprecious gems 500 1
22 silver 260 1
23 sulphur 500 50
24 tin 250 50
29 healing herbs 10000 1
30 arms 300 50
31 artwork/jewelry 50000 50
32 cloth 30 50
33 fine garments 800 50
34 fine arms 1000 50
35 furs 800 50
36 garments 40 50
37 incense 12000 50
38 leather 70 50
39 livestock 20 250
40 oil 40 50
41 porcelain 200 50
42 raw fiber 10 50
43 ropes 100 50
44 silk 500 50
45 spices 6000 50
46 sugar 9000 50
47 tools 150 50
48 wine 12 50
49 wool 20 50
81 beer 4 50


1.4 Legislature

1.4.1 Independence/Government Status

Each habitation is has a certain independence/government status, as described by the following list of possibilities (only one per habitation):

Anarchy
Habitation is not governed in any way, nor do the inhabitants recognize any ruler, violence and crime are rampant, most buildings are in ruins, there may even be monsters stalking the streets at night or in certain sections (e.g. Thieve's Town).
Capital
Habitation leader is autonomous and sovereign ruler of the habitation and other lands, usually including surrounding areas. The ruler is determined by the possession of a title (e.g. Akhen, Helecosian & Tigalian city-states).
Local capital
Habitation ruler is semi-autonomous ruler of the habitation and the surrounding region. As above, the ruler is determined by the possession of a title. The rights of his sovereign vary regionally, and can be very limited. The domain of the habitation ruler usually includes the surrounding provinces and lesser habitations. The main habitations of all medieval fiefdoms, and antique provinces are considered to be local capitals.
Free town/city
Habitation has semi-autonomous self-rule. The habitation ruler is always an inhabitant and usually obeys only his sovereign (e.g. pays taxes directly to him). The leader's rule is limited to the city itself, not even including the area it is located in. The leader is usually elected by a special assembly (e.g. many cities of the Akhian empire are 'free cities', especially those who belong to the political faction of the 'Merchant League'). The leader may administer its own justice (i.e. player's choice of punishment) if it has an appropriate charter, if not, the player owning the proper overlord or king (usually ruler of surrounding area) may do so.
Governorship
Habitat leader is subordinate to a sovereign or feudal master, who can usually interfere with his rule and relieve him of his office at will. His position is largely insignificant for purposes of play, and therefore for simplicity usually no separate title will be granted (standard method/title will then be used instead). This is the most widespread form of rule. All habitations not directly controlled by sovereigns, overlords, or self-rule have this status.


1.4.2 Entering and Leaving Restrictions

Furthermore each habitation may have laws about entering or leaving the habitation. The following is a list of settings determining the orders for the gate guards (note: habitations ruled by 'anarchy' have no controls at their gates, also there will be an additional setting for ports determining whether in- and outgoing ships will be controlled or not):

  • The gate guards will refuse entry to known criminals, heretics, or persons specifically expelled from this habitation for any reason (i.e. as criminals: certainly any characters outlawed by the habitation itself and with some probability if outlawed someplace in the province, as heretics: characters who have been declared as such, usually by leaders of their own faith, successful recognition may depend on influence of religion or distance to religious leader who declared this). This setting will almost always be set. Also, the guards will attempt to arrest any characters who are recognized as wanted outlaws, unless outnumbered too greatly.
  • Refuse entry to anyone obviously diseased (e.g. lepers or people carrying the plague). This setting will also almost always be set.
  • Refuse entry to any monsters (e.g. characters with an obvious supernatural mutation, characters of a 'monster race', characters riding unusual and threatening mounts). This setting will also almost always be set.
  • Refuse entry to 'suspicious looking' people, i.e. characters of one of the 'criminal' classes (assassin, bandit, spy, thief, any outlawed arcane class as determined by each nation, note: characters of these classes won't usually be recognized as such unless they are careless or inexperienced). This setting will also almost always be set.
  • Refuse entry to excessively armed (and armored) people. If a 'strict arms ban' (see below, part c)) is in force the guards will not tolerate any weapons (except a short blade) or armor (except soft leather, or equivalent) at all. If not, an extra parameter will determine the maximum amount of 'mediumly armed' persons (i.e. characters and soldiers) that the guards will tolerate per entering group. Also note that the possession of arms is not taken into account, just what is worn openly at entry (i.e. travel mode). This setting will usually be used in tolerant form for approximately 5 armed persons (varies with habitation size).
  • Refuse entry to heathens (i.e. followers of a religion not represented in the habitation or, in a more tolerant form, those of different alignment (see definition of religions), note: these persons may be hard to detect, unless they are more conspicious, e.g. they come from a foreign country or don't speak the local language). This setting is mostly used by xenophobic nations.
  • Refuse entry to foreigners (i.e. persons of a people not represented in the habitation), note: these persons will usually be easily detected. This setting is mostly used by xenophobic nations.
  • Refuse entry to persons of a certain race, as set by habitation ruler (note: it is usually quite hard to disguise a character's race, it is assumed that characters who manage to enter despite this are able to remain undetected or tolerated for the remainder of their stay). This setting is mostly used in regions where the people traditionally harbor strong resentments against a certain race.
  • When leaving persons may be examined as to what tradegoods they are carrying out be required to pay a toll on them. Habitation rulers may levy tolls per tradegood category (food, raw materials, manufactured goods, luxury goods). Toll rates are calculated as a percentage (may even be above 100%) of the local value. As habitations are glad to have goods be brought in they will not levy tolls on any imports.


1.4.3 Inner-City Laws

Certain basic laws necessary for a minimum amount of order in a habitation will be taken for granted, e.g. laws against stealing, killing, and armed fighting. These laws will and can only be out of effect in a habitation if it is in a state of anarchy (see above, part a)). The following is a list of optional laws:

  • There is a strict ban against weapons. The wearing (not possession!) of any weapons (except a short blade) or armor (except soft leather, or equivalent) is forbidden. Additionally, combat practice of any kind is also regarded with suspicion and might cause a preemptive arrest. Any official training grounds, such as a coliseum, may be the only exceptions to this.
  • Begging is strictly forbidden. This setting is rarely used as it is difficult to enforce with only minor gains. It should only be used if wishing to get rid of an excessively large poor or criminal population.
  • Slavery and serfdom are forbidden. Slave trade is forbidden. Any slave or serf characters will not be persecuted and will be elevated to the social class of 'freeman' after approximately a year's stay. Nearly all so-called 'free cities' (see above, part a)) will have this law, as it encourages immigration. Note that enforcing such a new law in habitations with large slave populations (such as cities of antique cultures) will have disastrous effects on the habitation's economy, and cause unrest among the privileged classes.
  • Intoxicants are banned. This applies usually to alcohol only, as other drugs are little known. Forces closure of all taverns and similar houses. Forbids any trading with such tradegoods. Enforcing such a new law will usually cause strong resentment and should only be considered if drug abuse is rampant.
  • Spellcasting und using magic items is forbidden. The only exception being if inside an official arcane guild. The greater the portion (and influence, e.g. through official arcane guilds) of spellcasting inhabitants (see above, urban population), the heavier the resistance to introducing such a new law will be.


1.4.4 Exemption List (i.e. 'Friends of the Mayor')

For each habitation there is a list of character, groups, and political factions, which are always exempted from the above laws, restrictions, and tolls, as well as target of hostile actions by the habitations guards (i.e. they have special connections to the town mayor, or even rule over him, so that he always makes special arrangements, or even cover-ups if necessary, for these people). A whole group qualifies for exemption, if it is either specifically listed, or its leading character is either specifically listed or is a member of one of the listed political factions. A single character qualifies, if it is either currently 'inside' a qualified group, or, if alone or in an unqualified group, it is specifically listed or belongs to one of the political factions. If otherwise no qualification possible a character's 'pretential political aim' will be used (unless 'pretention revealed', see heroic system). Note that characters and groups of the player's own position are always automatically exempted (i.e. no need for explicit listing). At game start, most habitations will have their overlords and the appropriate political faction in their exemption list.

1.4.5 Special Taxes

Ports may demand a fixed price for ships entering their harbor (harbor entry tax).

The habitation ruler may collect a head tax (i.e. a fixed amount from each inhabitant) via special decree. This is an irregular tax and will cause more discontent than the standard income tax.

1.4.6 Administering Justice

The administering of justice is simulated only for crimes initiated by players (i.e. through characters). Otherwise, it is assumed that in normal situations (i.e. no widespread poverty or unrest) the officials will automatically maintain a certain level of order.

A character may be arrested either through one of the following situations:

  • The habitation ruler gives a special order. Note that this is different than trying to 'capture' a character. An arrested character is held prisoner while being publicly accused of a crime. A habitation ruler who uses his guards to capture a character is actually trying to kidnap him. He may later though bring a captured character to trial (i.e. transform him to 'imprisoned' status) by accusing him of a crime.
  • The character is caught breaking one of the municipal laws. If a character was noticed committing (or attempting to commit) a crime but managed to escape, there will be a 'warrant' put out automatically him. Thereafter, that character is in danger of being arrested and tried anywhere in that region. There is no player order to issue a warrant (to eliminate misuse), as such need factual justification to be credible. For wanton arresting players may resort to an arrest order (see above).
  • The character is recognized while travelling through a region where a warrant has been issued on him. The danger of being recognized is especially great while entering or leaving a habitation of that region.


All violations a character may be accused of are classified as 'major' or 'minor' offenses. While certain crimes are quite clearly determined as one or the other (e.g. murder is always a major offense, while evading tolls or begging is always a minor offense). Others may depend on certain factors (e.g. with stealing the value of goods stolen is taken into account), usually with a certain amount chance, to determine the seriousness. Each warrant on a character also includes the number of his major and minor offenses. Each time a character commits new offenses (without being caught) in a region where he already is wanted, the number of offenses in his current warrant is increased instead of having new warrants for the same region issued. Thus when a character is brought to trial he may have to account for a whole series of crimes (note that warrants of foreign regions are ignored). When a habitation ruler wantonly arrests a character he must choose the type of offense (i.e. whether major or minor) he will (falsely?) accuse him of. If not sufficiently founded (e.g. character is revealed to have forbidden goods, be of a criminal character class, serve a enemy nation, etc.; note that because torture is commonly used a character may be forced to reveal any incriminating facts) such acts may cause popular discontent.

Nonetheless, as this judicial system is rarely interested in objectively determining the innocence of the accused (this is an achievement of modern times), almost all characters being tried will receive some form of sentence. This will be done either automatically or through player orders, as determined by the settings of the habitation.

For each habitation there is a setting that enables the automatic judging of criminals. Any characters will be automatically tried and punished (i.e. by the local judge) on the day following their arrest according to the gravity of their crimes. If a player wishes to disable this setting he must hold the legal charter to the habitation. Possession of the legal charter is also necessary to manually select the form of punishment (note that the legal charter to habitation may be held by a player other than the owner!) and is usually bound to the possession of a title (e.g. usually the local overlord or sovereign, free cities often hold their own legal charter). In habitations where the automatic judging is disabled the controling player may postpone the trial indefinitely.

Selection of the type of punishment is somewhat random, with following table giving a rough guidline:

major offense: execution mutilation flogging
either: infliction of brand mark expulsion & confiscation expulsion duel or ordeal
minor offense: fine public humiliation warning (= no punishment)

Note: execution also includes confiscation of convicted's property

Note: evaluation of crimes and selection varies with cultures, especially the barbarian culture has unusual rules, e.g. allowing fines as retribution for murder, in medieval & barbarian lands the accused may be allowed to prove his innocence in a duel or ordeal)


2. Rural estates

In contrast to habitations rural settlements are not as clearly delimited to their surroundings. A typical rural estate would consist of a conglomeration of hamlets, villages and even small towns together with the surrounding countryside and its isolated dwellers. The local lord would rule from a manor, castle or even a monastery.

2.1 Physical Structure

Size
the percentage of the area claimed (and held) by the estate holder, in areas without competing estates or habitations this value will be at 100%.
Ruler's residence
building wherein the local ruler resides, common are villas (anitiquitiy) or castles (medieval).
No. of villages
gives a general idea how the population is distributed inside the estate, if there are no villages then the population is widely dispersed. Also, this implies certain standard structures (e.g. a village usually has a church).
Infrastructure value
represents amount and quality of economically relevant local structures such as mills, barns, bridges, local roads, etc. This value may be lowered by destruction or neglect, and may be increased by building programs. If no infrastructure is present at all (happens only by destruction) production with be down due to lack of equipment (i.e. no trade) or a large amount of the produce will be assumed lost (e.g due to lack of storage space and transport capacity), so that the factor would then assume its minimum value. In the absence of calamities the population will try to build up a basic infrastructure by themselves, even in primitive cultures, so that no substantial amount of food is lost. In such a case the factor would have a value near 0.9. In more advanced societies certain technologies may permit a higher value (or allow a higher value to be reached more easily). As a general rule though, the higher the value already is (especially if above 1.0) the greater the effort must be to increase it further.
Special buildings
any additional buildings owned by the estate ruler. Theoretically, any of the urban special buildings may be included in a rural estate, usually though this would mean special production facilities used by players (e.g. mines, armories), or additional, smaller fortifications (e.g. towers). Note that this does not include special locations such as monster lairs, lost temples, dungeons, etc. The criteria for ownership of special buildings is namely actual control and usage, which not the case for such, as they are apparently worthless or contain hostile dwellers. By this rule, even though an estate holder may claim 100% of the area it may contain any number of 'foreign' buildings by other players, as long he does not force them away.
Special produce
each estate may produce a single type of good in addition to 'food'. The type of this good is set by the scenario and may not be changed during the course of a game (since it is based upon traditional expertise and local availability of resources) but you may set the percentage of effort that goes into producing this good instead of producing food. If it an agricultural product, the amount produce will vary together with food production with seasonal influences and the like, otherwise it will remain constant.
 

2.2 Population

For the sake of simplicity, the population of each estate will be considered homogenous (i.e. same race, nation, and religion) and therefore contain only a single population group. Players wanting to settle in different population in an area would have to create a new estate.

These are the descriptors for an rural population group:

no. of individuals
(measure, counts the size of a pop. group)
people
(identifier, determines the nationality of the pop. group)
race
(identifier, determines the race of the pop. group)
faith
(identifier, determines the faith or religion of the pop. group)
age group distributions
(4 percentages, note: usually only the value for 'grown males' is changed)
social/professional category distributions
(4 percentages, see above, 1.2)
wealth values
(wealth value for each inhabitant category (see above), denotes the average amount of wealth (in the form of cash, goods, & real estate, using a standard distribution per social class) that each person owns, the wealth of the ruling class (usually nobles or clerics) is automatically owned by the estate ruler (i.e. head of family) and may thus be at the free disposition of a player)
income values
(same as wealth values, denotes avg. income per day, mostly in the form of cash, nobles usually have no own income (i.e. they live from taxes), the total of the incomes determines the gross domestic productwhich is the basis for the calculation of the taxes, for peasant populations this value changes with the seasonal productivity value)
morale level
(evaluative level, describes the current mood of the population, affects productivity factor)
loyalty level
(evaluative level, represents the longer-term attitude of the population, in the absence of other influences the morale level will move towards this value)
tax level
(percentage, represents income tax rate (i.e. percentage of gross domestic product), this tax is automatically collected for the estate ruler); the tax may either be delivered as produce or in coin. In the latter case the peasants need to sell their goods at nearby markets first, which may often decrease the net value of taxes collected.
supply levels
(these are the evaluative, relative supply values for the 5 categories: arms, food, manufactured goods, raw materials, luxury goods; the meaning of a supply value is as follows: a value near 0 means that there is a total shortage of goods of that category, near 1 means that the supply meets the demand for those goods, a value above 1 means that there is a surplus, as multiple of demand)
relative food base
(determines the available agricultural facilities per farming manpower unit (per harvest!, see below, part f)) under basic conditions (i.e. primitive farming/herding, see above, part c)), and represents for one part the organic basis to produce food (e.g. herd animals, seed) and for the other part other necessities (e.g. cleared land, tools). A value below 1 means that there is not enough land or facilities for each farmer and the excess manpower will be used to slowly build up the food base (if there is remaining capacity in the area), a value above 1 (usually due to population reduction) means that there are excess facilities, which deteriorate though through neglect. A part of each year's harvest must be withheld to maintain (or increase) the food base. It can be used for immediate consumption (e.g. during a famine or by pillaging armies) albeit with disastrous effects for the coming harvest. The amount of food scavenged this way varies with seasonal productivity (see below) and is only a portion of the basic food base value (the other part of the food base is assumed to be lost through neglect or destruction).

3. Production and Consumption

Important Note: All production, consumption and tax collection occurs automatically. You do not need to order an estate or habitation to start production, they just always do that.

3.1 Rural production

For the sake of simplification, all agricultural products will only be produced in rural populations. For specific calculation the following parameters are used:

  • Farming manpower in population group (calculated from rural populations, see 2.1.b), as number of adult peasants, members of other age/gender groups may be added with a reduction factor (children & elderly 50%).
  • Infrastructure factor (per estate), represents amount and quality of economically relevant local structures such as mills, barns, bridges, local roads, etc. This value may be lowered by destruction or neglect, and may be increased by building programs. If no infrastructure is present at all (happens only by destruction) production with be down due to lack of equipment (i.e. no trade) or a large amount of the produce will be assumed lost (e.g due to lack of storage space and transport capacity), so that the factor would then assume its minimum value (=0.75). In the absence of calamities the population will try to build up a basic infrastructure by themselves, even in primitive cultures, so that no substantial amount of food is lost. In such a case the factor would have a value near 0.9. In more advanced societies certain technologies may permit a higher value (or allow a higher value to be reached more easily). As a general rule though, the higher the value already is (especially if above 1.0) the greater the effort must be to increase it further.
  • Cultural productivity factor (per nation & region), as determined by advancements of people (=nation) plus any additonal regional advancements, this represents the excess amount of food each peasant can produce (and thus be taxed away!) through advanced farming methods and equipment (i.e. product of increased yield per acre and increased no. of acres that can be farmed per peasant). This value can at its lowest equal 1/(climate zone productivity) (see below, this means then primitive subsistence farming/herding) and at its best be around 1.5 (late medieval farming). This factor only changes through the acquisition (and loss) of advancements.
  • Relative food base (per rural pop. group), determines the available agricultural facilities per farming manpower unit (see part a)) (per harvest!, see below, part f)) under basic conditions (i.e. primitive farming/herding, see above, part c)), and represents for one part the organic basis to produce food (e.g. herd animals, seed) and for the other part other necessities (e.g. cleared land, tools). A part of each year's harvest must be withheld to maintain (or increase) the food base. It can be used for immediate consumption (e.g. during a famine or by pillaging armies) albeit with disastrous effects for the coming harvest. The amount of food scavenged this way varies with seasonal productivity (see below) and is only a portion of the basic food base value (the other part of the food base is assumed to be lost through neglect or destruction). The effective food base is the portion of the food base that the peasants actually have enough manpower to farm (i.e. min(food base, manpower * increased no. of acres)). If the food base is larger than the modified manpower it will gradually sink to that value (e.g. uncultivated lands will turn into wilderness). On the other hand if there is too much manpower available it will go unused, but here again the food base will increase until it reaches the modified manpower value (i.e. land is cleared).
  • Fertility value (per area), represents the maximum size of the food base under basic conditions (i.e. primitive farming/herding). This incorporates such factors as soil quality, local weather, water sources, etc. The effective maximum food base though is this value multiplied with the increased yield per area (part of cultural productivity factor).
  • Weather factor (per area), gives an assessment, relative to the average local weather, on how good the weather has recently been here, values above 1.0 mean good weather and under 1.0 mean bad weather. Unusually bad weather which destroys growing crops will also have the effect of reducing the current food base (see above).
  • Seasonal productivity (per climate zone), the seasonal food production varies with climate zones, due to different harvest times. Therefore the following table is used to determine the seasonal productivity factor:

    monthly growth factors
    climate zone name #harvests 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
    North Polar 0.75 0.25 0.5 1 1.5 1.5 1.5 1 0.75 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25
    North Temperate 1 0.25 0.5 1 2 2 2 2 1 0.5 0.25 0.25 0.25
    North Mediterranean 1.25 0,5 1 2 2 1.5 1.5 2 2 1 0.5 0.5 0.5
    North Subtropical 1.5 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 1
    Tropical 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

Note: the #harvests-column gives the average value, but also represents the approximate number of harvests possible in the given climate zone, i.e. the amount of biomass which can be produced per year due to the length of the growing season (exc.: the inhabitants of the polar zones mainly live from herding and hunting, thus the change of factors represents the cycles of activity, not harvests). Note that unless productivity (due to cultural factors) in the more fruitful zones is high enough it will not be possible to effectively produce more food there.

Note: Fishing villages receive about half their food from the sea and are therefore to one half independent of climactic and weather values and the food base maximum (fertility value).

The above parameters are be combined in certain ways to give certain information about the current supply situation in the area. The effective support value is the approximate (i.e. excluding weather & infrastructure factors) number of people that the area can support. This value is calculated by multiplying the effective food base with the yield per acre and the seasonal average (see parts c,g)).

The different supply situations are categorized as follows:

  • An area is underpopulated if the modified manpower is lower than the effective food base maximum (i.e. there is room for population growth)
  • An area is optimally populated if the modified manpower equals the effective food base maximum (i.e. all arable land is being used and no peasants are idle, excess food amount is maximized)
  • An area is maximumly populated if the size of the population equals the amount of food it produces (i.e. no excess food available).
  • An area is overpopulated if there is more population than food that can be produced.

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